A Comprehensive Study on Fuel Adulteration Sensing by Using Triple Ring Resonator Type Metamaterial
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A novel shaped metamaterial sensor application which is designed to operate in X band is proposed. A new sample holder for easy operation is designed and placed just behind the proposed structure in X band. Since the adulteration of fuel with kerosene and ethanol is known method. This study is developed to give an alternative approach to the adulteration sensing studies. By having higher quality factors and wider bandwidth, when it is compared with similar metamaterial studies, proposed structure and design have lots of advantages as resolution, sensitivity and quality factor. Validation of the proposal has been performed in three steps, these steps are dielectric constant measurement by using Agilent 85070E dielectric measurement kit, simulation of the studies and experimental test study of the proposed structure with sensor layer. Obtained results shows us that this proposal can easily be adapted for different electrochemical sensing applications, if the dielectric constant is changing from 2 to 6. Another novel side of this study is application different type of adulteration examples as kerosene and ethanol as well as olive oil adulteration with cotton oil, presents mass application of metamaterials. (C) 2019 The Electrochemical Society.