An electromagnetic non-destructive approach to determine dispersion and orientation of fiber reinforced concretes
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CitationOzturk, M., Sevim, U.K., Akgol, O., Karaaslan, M., Unal, E. (2019). An electromagnetic non-destructive approach to determine dispersion and orientation of fiber reinforced concretes. Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, 138, pp. 356-367. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2019.01.039
Including fibers in concretes improves their mechanical properties such as flexural strength, impact load resistance and limited crack propagation. The dispersion, orientation and types of the fibers placed in the concretes affect these mechanical properties. The aim of the study is to propose a standard and a novel prediction method for determining the dispersion and orientation of the concretes in which fibers are reinforced in microwave frequency range. This study demonstrates that determination of both orientation and dispersion of the fibers regardless of the fiber types in concretes is possible by extracting electromagnetic properties of the structures in microwave regime as a nondestructive method. The measurement technique requires sample under test (SUT) and two wideband linearly polarized antennas placed in the front and backside of material under the free space condition. Although there are some studies investigated the fiber content of concrete samples through certain electromagnetic techniques, the proposed novel approach concentrates on the electromagnetic behavior of the fiber reinforced concretes in a very wideband range from 3 GHz to 17 GHz. Unlike the other studies, open space measurement with the help of a vector network analyzer which is capable of measuring up to 43 GHz along with two high gain horn antennas was carried out in the laboratory environment. Time required for exact measurement of dielectric constant and loss factor of the concrete between antennas is less than a minute. A simple and confidential model is carried out to determine both orientation and dispersion of fibers in concrete by observing the changes of dielectric constant and loss factor. The determination of electromagnetic properties of concretes with fibers has potential applications for future nondestructive sensors. In addition, observation of negative dielectric constant and some other electrical properties such as low loss factor and impedance match with free space presented in the study for particular frequency intervals gives a chance for future radome applications in harsh environmental conditions. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.