Catalytic cracking of pyrolytic oil by using bentonite clay for green liquid hydrocarbon fuels production
CitationKar, Y. (2018). Catalytic cracking of pyrolytic oil by using bentonite clay for green liquid hydrocarbon fuels production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 119, pp. 473-479. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.10.014
The pyrolysis of almond shell as a biomass feedstock was performed in order to obtain a bio-based feedstock for bio-refineries in a fixed-bed reactor under inert atmosphere (occurred by N-2 gas) at certain experimental conditions including 500 degrees C of temperature and a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). Then, the catalytic cracking of obtained pyrolytic liquid was conducted by using bentonite clay as a low-cost catalyst material at the conditions of 400 degrees C of temperature, a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1) and catalyst ratio of 30 wt%. The upgraded bio-oil revealed the properties of a basic fuel including 4.01 cSt of viscosity at the temperature of 40 degrees C; approximately 45.22% lower than that of non-upgraded bio-oil, low density of 1100.78 kg m(-3) at 15.6 degrees C, H/C molar ratio of 1.413 and calorific value (HHV) of 26.92 MJ kg(-1). The results of the chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis of the obtained bio-oils have revealed that the presence of bentonite clay led to a considerable increase in some organic compound groups such as phenolic, ketones, and oxygenated aromatics.