A comparative study of estimating solar radiation using machine learning approaches: DL, SMGRT, and ANFIS
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CitationÜstün, İ., Üneş, F., Mert, İ., Karakuş, C. (2022). A comparative study of estimating solar radiation using machine learning approaches: DL, SMGRT, and ANFIS. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization and Environmental Effects, 44 (4), pp. 10322-10345. https://doi.org/10.1080/15567036.2020.1781301
Solar energy has a key role in producing clean and emissions-free power compare to conventional methods. However, sustainable development also requires a reliable and predictable energy source. It also needs methods to measure and predict predictable supply. The main aim of the study is to improve reliable and precise solar radiation prediction models on monthly mean daily basis using various machine learning techniques. Simple Membership Function and Fuzzy Rule Generating Technique (SMGRT), which does not require error and trial for model adjustment, is the first-choice model in this study. Experience and observations about the model will greatly reduce the volume of processing for the fuzzy SMGRT model. On the other hand, Deep Learning (DL) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) have become increasingly popular in understanding nonlinear data structures and solving complex problems. Therefore, DL and ANFIS were also applied to estimate solar radiation. The data set used in the study were created using sunshine duration (s), extra-terrestrial solar radiation (H0), relative humidity (RH), cloudiness (C), air temperature (T) and soil temperature (ST) parameters. Estimation performance of models was evaluated by using several statistical indicators which are Mean Bias Error (MBE), Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and Correlation Coefficient (R2). When the performances of the models were compared, it was seen that all three models obtained remarkable results. In addition, it was shown that the models performed well based on the metrics in the testing phase. The SMGRT model has slightly better performance than DL and ANFIS for different input combinations. SMGRT Model 1 (with inputs H0, s, and T) shows the best statistical performance (MBE = 0.156, MSE = 1.878, RMSE = 1.371, and R2 = 0.960) not only in SMGRT models but also in others.